Wednesday, October 22, 2008

HP-UX Boot process

Hi Folks,

Ever wondered what happens when u trun on a system, be it a windows or linux or any other OS ? well, here is a chance for us to learn what happens when we trigger the power button on an HP system. This small journey of ours will drive us to the booting process, startup and shutdown process of HP-UX.

A set of code or instructions is written on how a system should act when initiated a boot called the Processor dependent code (PDC) . This code (PDC) executes and performs self-tests and some initialization tasks. The code that we are talking here is set on a piece of chip called the ROM.

What is ROM : Read-Only Memory or ROM is an integrated-circuit memory chip that contains configuration data. ROM is commonly called firmware because its programming is fully embedded into the ROM chip. As such, ROM is a hardware and software in one.

Once the self-tests and the starting initialization part is completed this code then loads the HP-UX kernel and hands control to the kernel. Now the kernel gets in action which does a number of system initializaiton tasks before we get to a login prompt on a console or terminal.

Sunday, August 10, 2008

HP-UX 11i

HP-UX operating systems
About HP-UX 11i

  • What is HP-UX 11i?
HP-UX 11i is the next major release of Hewlett-Packard's industry leading, 64-bit operating system.
  • What does the "i" signify?
The "i" is to reinforce that HP-UX is an Internet ready operating system. However, HP-UX is more than merely Internet capable. It delivers extensive new enablement, deployment, management, and security technologies that are essential requirements for Internet-ready customers. These combine to make HP-UX 11i the best operating system for Internet-critical computing.
  • I was expecting HP-UX 11.11. What happened to it?
The release that was originally designated to be HP-UX 11.11 was renamed. The new brand for the HP-UX operating system is "HP-UX 11i". All the features and functionality originally committed to the HP-UX 11.11 release are present and unchanged in the HP-UX 11i release. Only the brand name has changed.

  • When will HP go back to the old numbering scheme?
This is the brand for all future HP-UX releases. Future HP-UX 11i releases will have a distinguishing version number. For example, there is likely to be an HP-UX 11i version 1.5 and an HP-UX 11i version 2.0, and so on.
  • I heard HP-UX 11i was only for Superdome.

This is not true. HP-UX 11i is the operating system that enables the new Superdome high-end server. However, HP-UX 11i is truly an enterprise-wide release in that it supports all HP-UX workstations, technical servers, and commercial servers that are now capable of running HP-UX 11.0.
  • What systems does HP-UX 11i support?
HP-UX 11i supports all systems that currently run HP-UX 11.0. This includes all b, c, and j-class workstations. It includes all a, d, k, l, n, r, t, and v-class servers. There are, in addition to those systems, some legacy systems that will be able to run HP-UX 11i. These include some series 700 workstations, some series 800 servers.
  • Are there any other hardware restrictions?
To run HP-UX 11i a system must have at least 64MB of memory. To install HP-UX 11i a system must have at least 4GB of available disk space.
My system has a 32-bit CPU. Can I use the 64-bit HP-UX 11i operating system?

Many of the systems listed above are 32-bit only. If your 32-bit system is on that list, then it certainly can run HP-UX 11i. Even though HP-UX 11i is presented as a complete 64-bit operating system, it has a 32-bit mode of operation that lets it run on legacy 32-bit systems.

  • What about my applications? They are all built for my 32-bit systems. Do I have to get new, 64-bit applications?
HP-UX systems and HP-UX 11i both support 32-bit applications and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Of course, 64-bit applications will also execute correctly on a 64-bit system that is running HP-UX 11i.
  • What are the three most significant new features delivered in HP-UX 11i?
Selecting the top three from the long list of new features is a difficult task. Many people will choose different features. But here are three major items:
• Bundling of HP-UX into market focused operating environments

• Consolidation of the user-based HP-UX license to use into one unlimited user LTU
• Complete binary compatibility with applications currently running on HP-UX 11.0

operating environments

  • What are operating environments?
As implemented by Hewlett-Packard, operating environments are individual software products that deliver specific HP-UX 11i configurations. Each operating environment is comprised of the "base" HP-UX 11i functionality, commonly needed network drivers, and selected additional layered software products (ISU Products). There are four operating environments, and each is offered as a single, orderable product. These four operating environments are the only way to order HP-UX 11i.
  • What are the four operating environments?
1. HP-UX 11i operating environment
2. Enterprise operating environment
3. Mission critical operating environment
4. Technical computing operating environment

The first three operating environments support only commercial servers. The technical computing operating environment is for technical workstations and technical servers.
  • What distinguishes them from each other?
First, let's present what is identical to all four. All four operating environments share the same "base" OS and the same network stet. The additional products that are bundled into each operating environment make the distinction. The enterprise operating environment is a superset of the HP-UX 11i operating environment. The mission critical operating environment is a superset of the enterprise operating environment.
  • What determined their contents?
The products in each operating environment address a distinct market need and provide highly valued functionality. Some products are so widely used that they are configured into all four operating environments. Other products are highly specialized and are available in only one operating environment.

  • My system has a 32-bit CPU. Can I use the 64-bit HP-UX 11i operating system?
Many of the systems listed above are 32-bit only. If your 32-bit system is on that list, then it certainly can run HP-UX 11i. Even though HP-UX 11i is presented as a complete 64-bit operating system, it has a 32-bit mode of operation that lets it run on legacy 32-bit systems

Thursday, March 20, 2008

HP-UX Command Help Guide

Command Guide :

Navigating options :

  • Esc + k - view previously used commands, press k to view more history commands.

  • press Esc twice - For auto completetion you should press Esc key two times after typed first few characters.

Note : This option will not work on csh, This is good on POSIX shell "/usr/bin/sh" or its subset ksh "/usr/bin/ksh"


    /PATTERN search forward
    ?PATTERN search backwards
    / or ? or n repeat last search
    N reverse last search
    :w write buffer to disk
    :w NEWFILE write buffer to NEWFILE
    :w >> FILE append buffer to FILE
    :w! FILE force a write to FILE
    :wq write then quit
    :q quit
    :q! quit without writing
    :f show file name and line #
    :r read file into buffer
    :r FILE read named FILE
    :e edit
    :e! discard buffer and edit
    :e FILE edit a FILE
    :e # pop between files
    :s/OLD/NEW/ current line sub. 1st
    :s/OLD/NEW/g current line sub. all
    :1,7s/OLD/NEW lines 1-7 sub. all
    :%s/OLD/NEW all lines sub. 1st
    :%s/OLD/NEW/g all lines sub. all
    :%s/^/PATTERN /g insert PATTERN at beginning of line all lines
    :%s/$/ PATTERN/g insert PATTERN at end of all lines
    :set nu show line numbers
    :set nonu hide line numbers
    :set sm enable matching ()s
    :set nosm disable matching ()s

    $ end of line
    ^ beginning of line
    / search
    :%s/.$// remove last character on every line


    a append after cursor
    A append at end of line
    i insert before cursor
    I insert at start of line
    open a line below cursor
    open a line above cursor
    cw change word at cursor
    c#w change # of words
    C change text to end of line
    r replace a character
    R replace text unti
    #a add # copies of text
    #a add # copies of text at line end
    #i insert # copies of text
    #I insert # copies of text at line start
    ^w erase last word
    go to command mode


    h move cursor left
    l move cursor right
    j move cursor down one line
    k move cursor up one line
    G go to end of file
    #G go to line #
    H go to top of screen
    M go to middle of screen
    L go to bottom of screen
    w move cursor forward one word
    b move cursor back one word
    #w move cursor forward # words
    #b move cursor back # words
    F scroll forward one page
    B scroll back one page
    x delete character
    dd delete line
    #dd delete # lines
    dw delete word
    #dw delete # words
    d$ delete to end of line
    P paste before cursor
    p paste after cursor
    "vp paste buffer v after cursor
    xp transpose two characters
    Y yank a line
    #Y yank # lines
    "v#Y yank # lines to buffer v
    . repeat last command
    G show which line on
    u undo


    this was for changing DNS values in the db.* files


    The 'g' at the beginning and end of the command indicate that the changes are to occur horizontally and vertically

Command to view Service Gard related process :

#cmviewcl -v


  • location of syslog file and pk log file :

#tail -n 16 /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log


Normally Pkg log will be in the location :



Check Disk Utilization :



Check large file of a given directory :

find /(name of the directory, without brackets) -type f -size +30000 -exec ls -l {} \; more


To check if the process is running :

ps -ef grep -i (name of the process)


Formula to calculate the nfile parameter :



  • Restarting syslogd process :

Login as root user :

ps -ef grep syslogd

cp -p syslog.log

cd /var/adm/syslog

ls -lrt

/sbin/init.d/syslogd start

# gzip ( Zip the copied file to save the file )

ps -ef grep syslogd


Check if DSS tape is loaded or not :

mt -f status


To enable package switching and start the package :

# cmmodpkg -e ov-server and #cmrunpkg -n nodename ov-server


To be continued....